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鼻子与中西文化
2017-03-08 16:24   审核人:

英语中有一个谜语:Why is your nose in the middle of your face?答案是:Because it is the scenter.这是一个谐音双关语,scenter嗅觉器官的意思,但其发音和center(中心)一样。既然是中心,当然应该在中间了。

鼻子是嗅觉器官(俗称smeller,正式称呼为olfactory organ)。鼻子的英文是nose,但英文中还有许多表示鼻子的说法,特别在俚语中,如:antliapeckernibnebconkbeezerbugleschnozzle等。鼻子在五官(the five features)中很突出,往往成为一个人重要的特征。有人长的是鹰钩鼻,英文叫aquiline nose;有人长的是狮子鼻,英文叫pug nose;有人长的是朝天鼻,英文叫turn-up nose;有人长的是塌鼻子,英文叫snub nose;有人长的是蒜头鼻,英文是vegetable nose;还有人长的是酒糟鼻,英文叫brandy nose;至于酒鬼的红鼻子,英文常说成a nose to light candle at(可点蜡烛)。英文中的blue nose是称美国新英格兰地区和加拿大人的外号,因为那里天气冷,鼻子都冻青了。

大鼻子高鼻子big nosehigh nose。鼻子的高矮取决于鼻梁bridge of the nose,其两侧为鼻翼the alae of the nose,俗称nose wing),鼻子的下端是鼻尖tip of the nose),鼻尖下有两个鼻孔nostril,俗称nosehole)。语音学里的鼻音称nasal sound,但是说话带鼻音英文为speak with a twang,speak through the nose捏鼻子捂鼻子hold one’s nose;“挖鼻子掏鼻子pick one’s nose鼻涕英文叫snivelsont,nasal mucus;“流鼻涕have a running nose,擤鼻涕却说blow one’s nose;“鼻子塞住了have a stuffy nose;如果是感冒引起的也可说one’s nose is stopped with a cold哭鼻子则是snivelsaddle one’s nose听上去很有趣,在鼻子上放马鞍,是戴眼镜的意思。Thumb one’s nose(at…)指用拇指顶住鼻子,其余四个手指平行左右扇动的动作,表示轻蔑鄙视,也说成make a long nose(at…)

汉语和英语都有许多有关鼻子的习用语,有的类似,有的很不一样。鼻子好嗅觉灵敏have a good nose;相反鼻子不好嗅觉不灵敏have a bad nose;He has a nose for news.是说他擅于采访新闻keep a nose to the wind意为保持警戒Hard-nosed坚强固执的意思;He played hard-nosed football.是说他玩起橄榄球来拼劲十足。说某样东西很近就在鼻子底下,相当于英文right under one’s nose;英文也把目光短浅说成can’t see beyond one’s nosesee on further than one’s nose(只看得见自己的鼻子)。骄傲得鼻孔朝天英文有几种说法:hold up one’s nose,cock one’s nose,look down one’s nose,hold one’s nose in the air(with one’s nose in the air)牵着某人鼻子走lead somebody by the nose,被人牵着鼻子走be led by the nose嗤之以鼻可译为turn up one’s nose(at somebody),也可译为give somebody a snort of contempt

相比之下,英语中关于 nose的习语更多。A nose of wax没有主见、容易听人摆布的人(蜡做的鼻子怎么捏都行)。As plain as the nose in one’s face 意为一清二楚Follow one’s nose 笔直向前走凭直觉做事的意思,有点类似汉语常说的跟着感觉走Grab something by the nose 抓住要害in spite of somebody’s nose 意为不顾某人的反对”;hurl somebody onto his nose 很形象,意为把某人摔个嘴啃泥Keep one’s nose clean 是美国俚语,意为不喝酒循规蹈矩;而powder one’s nose则是方便方便的婉转说法。To win (lose, lead )by a nose 是说相差一点,这一说法来自赛马。Get a bloody nose 原意为鼻子出血,转指受挫make somebody’s nose blood 当然是让某人受挫了;put somebody’s nose out of joint 听上去有点怪(鼻子不会脱臼),但形象可猜,鼻子再也翘不起来了,意为使某人失宠;可是make somebody’s nose swell意思就不好猜了,那是引起某人羡慕或嫉妒的意思。Nose to nose 面对面的意思;They measured nose at the street cross 是说他们在十字路口相遇Count noses tell noses 相当于汉语的数人头put (show) one’s nose 到场的意思。Put your nose in here every now and then to see if I want anything.你时不时看看,万一我需要什么东西Poke (push , put, stick, thrust ) one’s nose into 意为打听(别人的事)爱打听的人被称为nosernosy person,当然反过来keep one’s nose out of 不打听不干预的意思。Get it up one’s nose 是一个习语,其中it什么也不指,整个短语意为生气迷恋get up somebody’s nose 惹某人发火的意思。
再请看下列句子:
1.I asked him to give me a hand, but he bit my nose off.
这里bite off somebody’s nose也作snap off somebody’s nose, 并不真的咬掉鼻子,而是气势汹汹(地回答)”之意。这一句可译为我请他帮帮忙,他却气势汹汹地训了我一通。
2.Even on Sundays he spent most of his time having his nose in books .
这一句意思比较好猜,是哪怕是星期天,他大部分时间也都埋头读书
3.For three long years he kept his nose to the grindstone.
意为整整三年他一直在埋头苦干。句中的keep 可换成bring, hold,putKeep somebody’s nose to the grindstone 让某人拼命干,不让他休息Cut off one’s nose to spite one’s face 词面意义为因为生脸的气而割掉鼻子,意为同自己过不去拿自己出气。
4. For the past decade, Gray’s forecasts have been heavy on the nose.
意为格里在过去十年中的预言几乎丝毫不爽 On the nose 准时准确的意思。
5. Go to Jake’s party if you wish. It’s no skin off my nose.
前半句好懂,后半句意为跟我毫不相干
6.I shall make him pay through the nose.
意为我要让他付出昂贵的代价
7.I know I’m wrong, but there is no need to rub my nose in it. Rub one’s nose in it
也是一个习语,意为揪住不放,其中的it 也没有具体所指。
8.This is not America. I’ve half a mind to pull your nose for you.
此句译成汉语是这儿可不是美国。我半点儿也不想和你逗乐打哈哈
英语中nose 还可用作动词爱打听nose about (很形象,好像耗子用鼻子在到处嗅);nose into a matter 干预某事nose a job into everything 事事都想插一手

nose somebody out 险胜某人侥幸取胜。又如:
The cat nosed her kittens.(
老猫用鼻子拱小猫。)
The child likes to nose into my drawer.(
孩子老喜欢探看我抽屉里有什么东西。)
We nosed our way through the dense forest. (
我们从密林中穿过。)
If there is anything wrong I can nose it out . (
有什么问题我会觉察的),其中nose out

当于汉语的嗅出来

英文中把船只、飞机等前面突出的部分也称作nose,
the nose of a car
汽车车头 the nose of a chisel 凿尖pliers with a long nose长嘴钳,所以会见到这样的句子:
The ship nosed her way through the winding channel.
(船小心地驶过蜿蜒的海峡。)
The bulldozer nosed the rock off the road.
(推土机把路上的石头推开。)
飞机起飞时机头向上是nose up; nose dive 指飞机俯冲,现也指价格等的猛跌

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